Endeavor around the Progress and Heritage of Plate Tectonics
Endeavor around the Progress and Heritage of Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics emanates from two words; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological phrases usually means a large slab of difficult rock when tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic could be outlined as how the earth’s is designed on shifting the plate. It could possibly even be well-defined as being a rigid section in the Earth’s lithosphere that moves separately from those bordering it (Rodger, 1993). Idea of plate tectonics states which the lithosphere of the earth is produced up of unique plates which might be fragmented into several huge and modest pieces of strong rock. The plates go up coming to one another in addition to the reduced mantle to generate assorted sorts of plate borders that have shaped the Earth’s landscape about a lot of a long time. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder from the plate tectonic concept; He noticed the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single massive plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart around 300 million many years ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research to the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The idea was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder in the concept on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics concept could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from just about every other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one of your possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the concept of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift on the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle with the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to go. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic theory and forces that were behind the drifting on the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of quite a few plate from the main one. Many major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding about the three main driving forces for the movement with the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his concept. The big convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lessen mantle. The reduce mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to go out and away from the ridge thus transferring the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the surrounding ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause lessen mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement of your plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different styles of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some in the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and go away from every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with numerous evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some of your evidences include: the jig-saw fitting of the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were difficult to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving which the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape from the earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic concept. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it several kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced that the plates transfer linearly and away from each other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic concept that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart more than millions of a long time back to form the current continents.
Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s heritage from the modern concept from the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press http://buyessay.co. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A history on the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.